Lasers (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) are the work horses of many photonics devises and can be categorised according to the lasing medium.
Main laser are:
- Dye lasers for astronomy, manufacturing, medicine, and spectroscopy.
- Fibre lasers for cutting, welding, folding of metals and polymers, additive manufacturing.
- Semiconductor laser (including Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL), Edge Emitting Lasers (EELs), Optically pumped Semiconductor Lasers (OPSLs)) for transmitting in optical fibres for telecom/datacom and long-range free-space communication as well as gas sensing and label-free sensing of various biomolecules.
- Solid State Laser (SSL) for LiDAR, spectrometry, manufacturing, information processing, chemistry and calibrated physical instruments.
- Excimer lasers for the production of microelectronic devices, semiconductor based integrated circuits or chips, eye surgery, and micromachining.